The term logistics covers a wide variety of common knowledge. It is difficult to achieve a proper structuring meaning and implications involved in logistics.
A traditional division of logistics is one which divides that activity in two fundamental forms. One optimizes a steady stream of raw materials produced by a network of transport links and storage nodes forming witch is called the global logistics. Other coordinate is a part of enterprise’s resources in order to achieve a certain activity of the undertaking various logistics (logistics supply, transport logistics, storage, logistics, etc.).
Logistic function manages the direct and indirect material flows associated intangible with flows of information and financial ones. In based on the sense of the material flows, can be subdivided into logistics upstream, downstream logistics and reverse logistics.
Logistics upstream includes:
- development of inside or outside the enterprise and searching for sources of supply through relationships with manufacturers (producers, industrialists, suppliers, subcontractors), service providers, consultants in the field logistic;
- sourcing involving the notion of contract;
- purchase that induces the notion of command
- upstream transport and customs operations for movement goods to a storage point or a platform of training command.
The downstream logistics comprises:
- storage of goods in warehouses;
- co-packing, lots, conditioning, marking, labelling,
- preparation of orders;
- transport downstream.
Reverse logistics refers to the movement of goods from the consumer to the point of repair, recycling or final destruction.
Logistics infrastructure is made up of warehouses and remedies communications and the movement of material flows in order to steer at manufacturing sites, up to transformation. In this sense, we can group logistics in the following categories: logistics based on extensive streams or on stored flows and logistics based on flows pushed or pulled. When the product may be targeted directly at the place of consumption without constitute stocks it’s called stretched. In the case of reverse flow is called saved. If production decide on the quantity of the goods transported is called flow pushed. On the contrary, if the consumer decides the amount of goods transported and the flow is called shot.